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A GUIDE

TO THE

WILD FLOWERS

W4

"%.t

PLATE XX. WILD HONEYSUCKLE. Azalea nudijlora.

COPyRIGHT, 1899, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. PRINTED IN AMERICA.

A GUIDE

TO THE

WILD FLOWERS

BY

ALICE LOUNSBERRY

WITH SIXTY-FOUR COLOURED AND ONE HUNDRED BLACK-AND- WHITE PLATES AND FIFTY-FOUR DIAGRAMS

BY

MRS. ELLIS ROWAN

TKmtb an -ffntroDuction

BY

DR. N. L. BRITTON

Emeritus Professor of Botany, Columbia University, Author of ^^ An Illustrated Flora^ and Director of the New York Botanical Garden.

FO UR TH EDITION WITH RE VISIONS

It

NEW YORK

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY

PUBLISHERS

Copyright, 1899, By Frederick A. Stokes Company

Contents.

Preface, ......

List of Illustrations, ....

Introduction by Dr. Nathaniel Lord Britton,

A Chapter to Study, . . ,

Five Conspicuous Plant Families,

Plants Growing in Water,

Plants Growing in Mud : Bogs, Swamps and

Marshes, Plants Growing in Moist Soil : Low Meadows and

BY Running Streams, Plants Growing in Rich or Rocky Soil : Deep Woods

and Hillsides, ....

Plants Growing in Light Soil : Open Woods, Plants Growing in Sandy Soil, Plants Growing in Dry Soil : Upland Places, Thicke

and Meadows, ..... Plants Growing in Waste Soil : Roadside Banks and

Lanes, . Index to Colour, . Index to English Names, Index to Latin Names, . Index of Technical Terms,

PAGE.

iv ix

XV

I

15

21

43 79

139

203 231

256

296 326

333

340 346

Prefc

ace.

The love of flowers is one of the earliest of passions, as it is one of the most enduring. Children with the bees and butter- flies delight in the opening of the spring ; and a bright boy that is reared in the country follows the season by its flowers. He it is who knows when to push aside the snow and dried leaves to find the first sweet blossoms of the trailing arbutus ; nor does he mistake the dell where the white violet peeps shyly out for the spreading patch of blue violets to which he returns every year. He knows the hillside where the mountain laurel and the lambkill grow, and drives away the foolish cows that would eat of their fresh, green shoots. The precious haunt of the pink orchis and the rocky crag over which droops the lovely columbine is to him an unravelled mystery. A stream of fish- ing he marks by the stately cardinal flower or the coy jewel- weed.

His knowledge of them all is intimate and loving one that he has acquired by his own skill and observation, and through this close friendship with them he feels proudly that they are his very own. The swamps and the woods, the hills and the road- sides, are his especial domain.

The great poets of America have shown a profound apprecia- tion of their incomparable wild flowers. In fact, the impersonal love of flowers is one of the characteristics of modern poetry. But this has not always been so. The Persians made use of their flowers as mouthpieces to express their own sentiments and from them the idea radiated very generally. They served the ancient Greeks mostly as tombstones to commemorate their sorrows : and although the Greek boy knew where to find them and honoured them as favourites of his gods, he had not the

VI PREFACE.

same sentimental fondness for them as has our little American friend. A wild rose would never say to him : " I despise you ; " nor does he expect a black-eyed Susan to blush from shyness.

The wild flowers have their own unique personalities. They exist as individuals and reproduce themselves. Every plant is a member of a family and has its relatives quite as well as those of the animal world. To know them it is necessary that we should seek them in their homes : they seldom come to us.

It is for this reason that a classification according to the soil in which they grow is feasible. It is a tangible point of which to take hold. And although there are some fickle-minded plants that appear to flourish in different kinds of soil, they may be regarded rather as those straying away from family tradition, than as trustworthy examples. As a rule they are partial to particular kinds of soil and do not thrive nearly so well in other than that allotted to them by Dame Nature. The marsh marigold, with which most of us are familiar, when it reaches the sunny, warmer south retires to the wet, cool woods in search of a soil similar to that of its home marshes. The harebell, that is with us a shy plant, hiding itself in shady places and rooting in moist soil, in England ventures out into the meadows and highways. It has there not our midsummer heat with which to contend and finds the soil of the fields not unlike that of our shaded banks.

It would therefore seem that, putting aside an analysis of their minuter parts, the different species of plants could be most readily known by their locality. With one exception the great family of golden-rods are yellow ; but they do not all grow in the same kind of soil. The knowledge, therefore, that one inhabits a swamp will be of more value to identify it than to know its colour. For the convenience of those, however, that are accustomed to a classification by colour, an index, in which the plants are arranged under the dominant colour of the blossoms, has been provided.

With the knowledge of this point and knowing also the soil

PREFACE. vii

in which they grow, little difficulty should be encountered in determining the position of any plant in the book.

It has seemed most natural to make the divisions of soil according to a gradation from plants that grow in water through those of mud and those of moist, rich, rocky, light and sandy soils respectively to those that flourish in dry and waste ground. Under this classification the primary idea in group- ing the genera has been to keep the families together, and so far as is consistent with this plan they have been arranged according to their seasons of blooming.

The common English name, or several common names, when they exist, and the scientific names of the plants are first given. Accents have been retained on the latter as being an assistance to their correct pronunciation. Then follow, so that they may be seen at a glance, the family, colour, odour, range and time of bloom. A simple analysis is also given, from which the manner of their growth and the form and number of their parts can be learned. From the routine order of placing first the root, or stem, a deviation has been indulged in by beginning with a description of the flowers. It is thought to be more considerate to allow the novice to satisfy his enthusiasm over the blossom before claiming his attention for the root, stem, and leaves.

The technical terms that have been used will not be found difficult to conquer by a little patience and study of the next chapter. The student will then be armed with a vocabulary from which two words will serve him for twelve of his own that he might otherwise employ. Every science has its phe- nomena that individuals are ready to master ; but for some strange reason botany has, until recently, been so enwrapped in the gloom of technical expressions that it has been declared impossible. Happily this idea has become a phantom of his- tory. The change undoubtedly is greatly owing to the many delightful books that have been written on this subject. It is these books that make naturalists.

viii PREFACE.

Modesty, we learn from the flowers, is one of the winsome virtues. It is therefore said with much modesty that what has been formerly lacking to make these books thoroughly useful and practicable to the student is supplied in the present volume. It is COLOUR. To the development of science we owe the existence of the sixty-four coloured plates that are here repro- duced. They and the pen-and-ink sketches are from original studies from nature and show us many of our familiar as well as rare wild flowers. In the selection of them the range has not been limited ; simply from America's great wealth of bloom those have been chosen that have some especial claim on our attention. This work has been greatly facilitated by the most kind and generous aid of Dr. Britton.

Mrs. Rowan received invaluable assistance from Mr. Beadle, the well-known botanist of Biltmore ; and while in Asheville was enabled, through his courtesy and that of his colleagues, to get many rare specimens of native plants from the mountains of North Carolina.

Besides accuracy, Mrs. Rowan has a particularly happy faculty of transmitting to paper the atmosphere of the plants, so that in looking at them we almost feel their texture and sense a whiff of the salt marsh in which they grew, or the cool, spicy odour of the pine thickets. How differently these coloured plates impress us from those that gave dreary pleasure to our ancestors, when a patch of colour and a bit of green that was taken on faith as the accompanying leaves caused them to exclaim mechanically, " It is a flower,"

That the book introduces many new friends among the wild flowers and that it adds colour constitutes its claim upon the reader.

About the flowers grave lessons cling, Let us softly steal like the tread of spring And learn of them.

List of Illustrations.

The mark * * * which appears in the list designates the plates that are pro- duced in colour. The number of the page given for each of these coloured plates is that of the printed pagQ/aced by the coloured plate in each case.

PLATE. PAGE.

I. WATER-ARUM. Calla pahistris, .

II. GOLDEN CLUB. Orontium aguaticum,

III. YELLOW POND-LILY. NymphcBa advena,

IV. YELLOW NELUMBO. Nelumlw lutea,

V. COMMON WHITE WATER CROWFOOT. Batrachiumtrichophyllum, YELLOW WATER CROWFOOT. Ranuticulns delphini/olius^

VI. WATER HEMLOCK. Cictita maculata, .

VII. WATER-HYACINTH. Piaropus crassipes,

VIII. COMMON BLADDERWORT. Utricularia vulgaris^

IX. ARROW-HEAD. Sagittaria lati/olia,

X. WATER-PLANTAIN. Alisma Plantago-aquatica^

XI. AMPHIBIOUS KNOTWEED. Polygonum amphibium^ XII. FLOATING-HEART. Limnanthejnum lacunosunt^

XIII. AMERICAN CRINUM. Crinutn Americanum^

XIV. SWAMP PINK. Helonias bullata, . XV. PITCHER-PLANT. Sarracenia purpurea^

XVI. MARSH MARIGOLD. Caltha palustriSy

XVII. GOLDTHREAD. Coptis tri/olta, .

XVIII. SWAMP ROSE, ^^sa Carolina,

XIX. LIZARD'S TAIL. Saururus cernuus,

XX. WILD HONEYSUCKLE. Azalea nudiflora,

XXI. WHITE SWAMP HONEYSUCKLE. Azalea viscosa, XXII. AMERICAN CRANBERRY. Oxycoccus macrocarpus.

20

'

23

25

27

trichophylluin.

29

'/alius.

.

29

31

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32 35 37 39 40

42

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45

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52

.

54

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t *

Frontispiece.

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54

,

S8

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XXIII. CALOPOGON. Litnodorum tuberosum, .

XXIV. SNAKE-MOUTH. Pogonia ofihioglossoides, XXV. SMALL PURPLE-FRINGED ORCHIS. Habenaria psycodes,

XXVI. WHITE-FRINGED ORCHIS. Habenaria blephariglottis^ YELLOW-FRINGED ORCHIS. Habenaria ciliaris

XXVII. MARSH CLEMATIS. Clematis crispa,

XXVIII. HORNED BLADDERWORT. Utricularia cornuta, XXIX. ROSE MALLOW. Hibiscus Moscheutos, .

XXX. BUCKBEAN. Menyanthes trifoliata,

XXXI. SEA PINK. Sabbatia campanulata, . .

XXXII. VENUS'S FLY-TRAP. Diortiea muscipula,

XXXIII. MILKWEED. Asclepias lanceolata, ASHY MILKWEED. Asclepias cinerea,

XXXIV. LARGER BLUE FLAG. Iris versicolor,

XXXV. CRESTED DWARF-IRIS. Iris cristata,

XXXVI. POINTED BLUE-EYED GRASS. Sisyrinchium angusti folium, XXXVII. YELLOW-ADDER'S TONGUE. Erythronium Americanum,

XXXVIll. CAROLINA LILY. Lilium Carolinianum,

XXXIX, STOUT STENANTHIUM. Stenanthium robustum,

XL. FOUR-WINGED SNOWDROP TREE. Mohrodendron Carolinum,

XLI. CHOKE CHERRY. Prunus Virginiana, .

XL!!. TALL WILD BELLFLOWER. Campanula Americana,

XLIII. COLORADO SHOOTING-STAR. Dodecatheon Meadia frigidu

XLIV. TRUMPET FLOWER. Tecoma radicans, .

XLV. BUTTON'BUSH. Cephalanthus occidentalis,

XLVI. BLUETS. Houstonia coerulea, ....

XLVll. TALL MEADOW RUE. Thalictrum polygamum,

XLVlll. MONKSHOOD. Aconitum uncinatum,

XLIX. MOCK APPLE- Micrampelis lobata,

L. WHITE-FLOWERED SIDALCEA. Sidalcea Candida,

Li. CARDINAL MONKEY-FLOWER. Mimulus cardinalis, . Lll. TURTLE-HEAD. Chelone glabra, ....

Llll. TURTLE-HEAD. Chelone Lyoni, ....

LIV HEDGE-HYSSOP. Gratiola aurea.

* * *

* * *

* * *

* * *

* * *

* * *

90 92

94 96

99 103

104 105 107 108 III "3 "5

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XI

LV. MEADOW BEAUTY. Rhexia Virginica,

LARGE-FLOWERED MILKWORT. Polygala grandijlora,

LVL SLENDER DAY FLOWER. Commelina erecta,

LVII. SPIDERWORT. Tradescantia inontana, ,

LVIII. JEWEL-WEED. Itnpatiens bifora^

LIX. CARDINAL FLOWER. Lobelia cardinalis,

RATTLESNAKE GRASS. Panicularia Canadensis,

LX. GREAT LOBELIA. Lobelia syphilitica, .

LXL ROUND-LEAVED PSORALEA. Psoralea orbicularis,

LXII. OSWEGO-TEA. Monarda didyma,

LXIII. OBEDIENT PLANT. Physostegia Virginiana, .

LXIV. FRINGED GENTIAN. Gentiana crinita, .

LXV. CLOSED GENTIAN. Gentiana Andrewsii,

LXVI. SNEEZEWEED. Helenium autumnale,

LXVII. BLUE STOKESIA. Stokesia cyanea,

LXVIII. JOE-PYE-WEED. Eupatorium purpureum^

LXIX. GOLDEN-ROD. Solidago juncea,

LXX. JACK-iN-THE-PULPIT. Arisosnta triphyllum, .

LXXI. STROPHILIRION. Strophilirion Cali/ornicum,

LXXII. TWISTED STALK. Streptopus roseus,

LXXIII. LARGE-FLOWERED WAKE-ROBIN. Trillitim grandiflorum,

LXXIV. PAINTED TRILLIUM. Trillium undulatum,

LXXV. PANICLED BELLFLOWER. Campanula divaricata

LXXVi. DALIBARDA. Dalibarda repens, .

LXXVll. EARLY WHITE ROSE. ^''•^^ blanda,

LXXVIM. COLUMBINE. Aquilegia truncata,

LONG-SPURRED COLUMBINE. Aquilegia caridea,

LXXIX. BLACK COHOSH. Cimici/uga racevtosa,

LXXX. BUNCH-BERRY. Cormis Canadensis,

LXXXI. FLOWERING DOGWOOD. Cornus Jlorida,

LXXXII. SOURWOOD. Oxydendrum arboreum, . LXXXIII. MOUNTAIN LAUREL. Kalmia latifolia, .

LXXXIV. SHEEP LAUREL. Kalmia angusti/olia, .

LXXXV. GREAT RHODODENDRON. Rhododendron maximum.

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Xll

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

LXXXVI. SHIN-LEAF. Pyrola elli^tica,

LXXXVII. CREEPING WINTERGREEN. Gaultheria procumbenSy LXXXVIII. CREEPING WINTERGREEN. Gaultheria Shallon, LXXXIX. INDIAN PIPE. Monotropa uniflora,

FALSE BEECH-DROPS. Hypopitys Hypopitys, . XC. NEVINS'S STONE CROP. Sedum Nevii, . XCI. AMERICAN ORPINE. Sedum telephioides, XCII. SMOOTH RUELLIA. Ruellia strepens, . XCIII. YELLOW LADY'S SLIPPER. Cypripedium hirsutum, XCIV. MOCCASIN FLOWER. Cypripedium acaule, XCV. STRIPED CORAL-ROOT. Corallorhiza striata, XCVI. RATTLESNAKE PLANTAIN. Peranium repens, . XCVII. BLOOD-ROOT. Sanguinaria Canadensis, XCVIII. GROUND OR MOSS PINK. Phlox subtdata, XCIX. HOBBLE-BUSH. Viburnum alni/olium,

C. TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera sempervirens, CI. TWIN-FLOWER. Linncea borealis, Gil. WHITE ABRONIA. Abronia fragrans. Gill. WHITE BEARD'S TONGUE. Pentstemon Digitalis, CIV. WHITE BEARD'S TONGUE. Pentstemon Newberryi, GV. WOOD-SORREL. Oxalis Acetosella, GVI. TRAILING ARBUTUS. Epigaa repens, GVII. SPOTTED PiPSISSEWA. Chimaphila maculata,

FIRE PINK. Silene Virginica, CVIll. WIND-FLOWER. Anemone quinque folia, CIX. THIMBLE-WEED, Anemone Virginiana, ex. CAROLINA LARKSPUR. Delphinium Carolinianum, CXI. PARTRIDGE VINE. Mitchella repens, CXII. WILD PINK, Silene Caroliniana, . CXIil. STARRY CAMPION. Silene stellata, CXIV. GROUND-NUT, Panax trifolium, CXV. WILD GERANIUM. Geranium maculatum, CXVI. PROSTRATE TICK-TREFOIL. Meibomia Michauxii, CXVII. WOOD-BETONY, Pedicularis Canadensis,

165

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169

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171

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179

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185

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189

191

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195

197

* * * 300

205

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309

211

** 212

215

*** 218

ai9

. . 221

* 332

225

»27

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

xui

CXVIII. DOWNY FALSE FOXGLOVE. D asy stoma Jlava,

SMOOTH RUELLIA. Ruellia strepens, CXIX. FERN-LEAF FALSE FOXGLOVE. Dasystoma Pedicularia^ CXX. SPANISH BAYONET. Yucca filamentosa^ CXXI. BIRD'S-FOOT VIOLET. Viola pedata,

BIRD'S-FOOT VIOLET. Viola pedata bicolor, . CXXII. ST. ANDREW'S CROSS. Ascyrum hypericoides, CXXIII. SHRUBBY ST. JOHN'S-WORT. Hypericum proli/icum, CXXIV. GOAT'S RUE. Cracca Virginiana, CXXV. WILD SENNA. Cassia Mar Handicap

PARTRIDGE PEA. Cassia Chamcecrista^ . . .

CXXVI. BEACH PEA. Lathyrus maritimus, CXXVII. BUSH CLOVER. Lespedeza procumbens, . CXXVIII. HYSSOP SKULLCAP. Scutellaria integrt/olia.

HAIRY SKULLCAP. Scutellaria pilosa, . CXXIX. HORSE-MINT. Monarda punctata, CXXX. CAROLINA CALAMIINT. Calamintha Caroliniana, CXXXI. PURPLE GERARDIA. Gerardia purpurea, CXXXIl. FLOWERING SPURGE. Euphorbia corollata, . CXXXm. SMOOTH ASTER. Aster Icevis, .... WH;tE wreath aster. Aster multiflorus, . LATE PURPLE ASTER. Aster patens, CXXXIV. SHAD-BUSH. A7nelanchier Canadensis, CXXXV. VIOLETS. Viola blanda, Viola Canadensis, Viola- pubescens

Viola palmata, .... CXXXVI. CRANBERRY TREE. Viburnum Opulus, . CXXXVll. SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL. Potentillafruticosa, . CXXXVIII. VIPER'S BUGLOSS. Echium vulgare, CXXXIX. LARGE-FLOWERED VERBENA. Verbena Canadensis, . CXL. 8CAP0SE PRIMROSE. Pachylophus ccespitostts, CXLI. PASSION FLOWER. Passiflora incarnata, CXLII. CALIFORNIA POPPY. Eschscholtzia Calif ornica, CALIFORNIA POPPY, Eschscholtzia coespitosa, . CXLIII. BUTTERFLY PEA. Clitoria Mariana, .

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XIV

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

CXLIV. COMMON MILKWEED. Ascle^ias Syriaca,

CXLV. BUTTERFLY-WEED. Asclepias tuberosa,

CXLVI. MOTH-MULLEN. Verhascutn Blattaria^

CXLVII. STRIPED GENTIAN- Gentiana villosa, .

CXLVIIJ. TICK-SEED. Coreopsis lanceolata^ .

CXLIX. ROBIN'S PLANTAIN. Erigeron pulchellus,

CL. WHITE DAISY. Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum,

BULBOUS BUTTERCUP. Rammculus bulbosus^

CLI. BLACK-EYED SUSAN. Rudbeckia hirta, .

CLII. PURPLE-FLOWERING RASPBERRY. Rubus odoratus,

CLIII. SPREADING DOGBANE. Apocynum AndroscEmifolium

CLIV. CYPRESS-VINE. Quamoclit coccinea^

CLV. BOUNCING BET. Saponaria officinalis^ .

CLVI. DOUBLE BOUNCING BET. Saponaria officinalis

CLVII. TRAVELLER'S JOY. Clematis Virginiana,

CLVIII, MUSK MALLOW. Malva vtoschata,

CLIX. WHITE ALDER. Clethra alnifolia,

CLX. HOG-PEANUT. Falcata comosa, .

CLXI. SUNFLOWER. Helianthus mollis^

CLXII, IRON-WEED Vernonia Noveboracensis^

CLXIII. COMMON YARROW. Achillea Millefolium,

CLXIV. CHICORY. Cichorium Intybus^

279

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313 318 321 333 324

Introduction.

One of the first questions a botanist asks about a plant is, "Where did it grow," and the next is, "When and where did you get it," Yet it is surprising how seldom these points are noted, and how many collections are preserved without suffi- cient data to guide us in the identification of the specimens. If this book does nothing more than emphasize the importance of observing these points it will do good.

It will also aid in the appreciation of that new development of botanical study, the science of Plant Ecology. It will teach the novice how altitude, latitude, soil and environment affect the vegetation of certain areas ; how certain plants are found growing together because of the nature of the soil and of their surroundings. If it also leads to the understanding of their gradual adaptation to changed conditions it will give a broader and more comprehensive view of plant morphology and lead away from the mistaken idea that plants must and should con- form to our artificial definitions, and make clearer the laws of evolution.

To feel that plants are living things, that individuality and heredity are constantly struggling in them for ascendancy, bringing about modifications which in course of time are suffi- cient in amount and importance to create specific differences, these are the underlying principles of the study of plants.

That the love of Nature is gaining ground among us is shown in many ways. The number of books and magazines dealing with natural-history subjects in a popular way, increases yearly to meet an increasing need. A constant demand exists which

xvi INTRODUCTION.

calls upon our specialists in Science to tell what they know in plain readable language, and expects them to illustrate their meaning in the best and most modern manner. The public calls for increased facilities for learning. Popular lectures, beautifully illustrated, have become the order of the day, and the labour of the brain may be had cheaper than the labour of the hands. Biology and Nature Study have taken their places in the courses of instruction both in private and public schools and the teachers are struggling to fit themselves to meet the new requirements ; in fact, the supply does not equal the de- mand. Parents are seeking for companions for their children in their hours of recreation and vacation who can answer ques- tions on natural objects and phenomena ; if they cannot find the right person, they want correct books and magazines.

That the true love of Nature imposes certain moral responsi- bilities is also beginning to be recognised. First and foremost a respect and care for living things will do away with that spirit of wanton destruction which permits the killing of any animal or the uprooting or trampling of a living plant, just for the fun of it. It will also promote a spirit of unselfishness which can enjoy the beauties of Nature and leave them as we found them for some one else to enjoy after us. It also pro- motes an appreciation and love of truth which fosters exactness and precision. From a pedagogic standpoint nature studies are of the utmost importance, as they bring the mind to the consideration of the objective rather than the subjective meth- ods. That they call for greater individuality and latitude of presentation is one of the reasons why it has been difficult to secure the right methods. Our schools cannot be bound by hard and fast rules and requirements ; the teacher must meet the needs and opportunities of the students and these are very diverse in different schools and places. She must be ready to make use of any facilities and accomplishments that individual scholars may afford for the benefit of the others, and to bring drawing, photography and poetry, as well as prose, to her as-

INTRODUCTION. xvii

sistance. Summer schools and vacation classes seem to meet a widespread want, and to take teachers and pupils away from the densely populated cities is better than to bring living plants and animals to them. Therefore a book that leads searchers to know what they will find in the country is the best kind of a book.

Our thanks are due to Miss Lounsberry and Mrs. Rowan for having contributed a work which cannot fail to advance Nature Study in quite the way that it should be advanced. Mrs. Row- an's figures have been drawn from plants growing in their nat- ural surroundings and they are accurate and elegant. The new process by which it has been made possible to reproduce her coloured paintings is a most valuable addition to methods of illustration.

N. L. Britton.

New York Botanical Garden, February 20, 1899.

A Chapter to Study.

No attempt has been made in the following chapter to ac- quaint the student with every term that it is possible to use in describing the organs of a plant ; but enough have been ex- plained and used throughout the book to give a comprehensive vocabulary of the subject and to lead one up to the enjoyment of an altogether scientific work on botany.

The existence of the plant and that of the animal are so closely linked together that it would be rather difficult to pro- phesy the fate of one were the other to withdraw itself from the earth. It is a pleasure to see that they seldom encroach upon each other's mission in life ; but are generously helpful by the most amicable arrangements.

The plants absorb from the atmosphere carbonic-acid gas, which, unless this were so, would become abundant in the air and be injurious to animal life. They exhale oxygen, which is the animal's necessary food. The opposite course is pursued by animals. They inhale oxygen and exhale carbonic-acid gas. In this way they return the plants' compliment : by taking from them what they do not want and giving them as food what they do want.

Again, plants are almost altogether dependent upon animal life to perform for them the service of cross-fertilization, page 7. The birds, the butterflies and Master Bee and his family are all ceaselessly busy as their messengers. But there is nothing mean about the flowers. In return, they are quite aware of, and cater to, the tastes of all. When a bird carries the seeds of a flower to some distant place and deposits them, it is only a slight remuneration for the delicious luncheon of red

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

berries which he has enjoyed. If Master Bee follows the road that is plainly marked out for him by a deep, rich veining and sips to satiety of a gland of nectar ; it is but fair that the an- thers should load him well with a cargo of pollen to carry off to the pistil of another flower. In fact, as we become more friendly with the flowers we will cease to lock upon them so much as luxurious creatures but rather as those that have solved the deep problems of domestic economy.

The plant's individual mission in life is the reproduction of itself.

The flower and its products, the fruit and the seeds, are the organs of reproduction.

The root, the stem and the leaves are the organs of vegeta- tion.

The Inflorescence is the manner in which the flowers are arranged upon the stem.

When but one flower grows upon the end of the stem or flower-stalk, it is said to be terminal, solitary.

It is Axillary when the flower, or flowers, grow from the axils of the leaves, or in the angle formed by the leaf, or leaf- stalk, and the stem. (Fig. i.)

FIG. I. FIG. 2. FIG. 3.

A Pedicel is the individual stalk of a flower borne in a clus- ter,

A Peduncle is the stalk of a solitary flower, or the general stalk that bears a cluster.

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

Sessile is the term used when the flowers grow closely to the stem and are without either pedicel or peduncle.

A Raceme is when the flowers grow on pedicels about equally long that are arranged along the sides of a common stalk. (Fig. 2.)

A Panicle is a compound raceme. (Fig. 3.)

FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7.

A spike is like a raceme, only the flowers are sessile. (Fig. 4.) A Spadix is a fleshy spike that is usually enveloped by a leaf-like bract called a spathe. (Figs. 5 and 6.)

A Head or Capitulum is a short, dense spike that is globu- lar in form. (Fig. 7.)

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FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG 10.

A Corymb is a raceme in which the lower pedicels are elongated so that the flowers all reach about the same height. (Fig. 8.)

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

An Umbel is like a corymb, only the pedicels branch from the same central point, suggesting the ribs of an umbrella. It may be simple, or compound. (Fig. 9.)

A Cyme is a flat-topped inflorescence, differing from an umbel in that its innermost flowers are the first to open. (Fig.

10.)

A Complete flower is one that is provided with the essential organs of reproduction, the stamens and pistil ; and the pro- tecting organs, the calyx and corolla. As an example of a complete or typical flower we may take the one illustrated in Fig. II and 12.

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CAcn^

FIG. II. FIG. 12. FIG. I3.

The Calyx is the lower, outer set of leaves at the base of the flower which rests upon the receptacle, or end of the flower- stalk. It is usually green, but not always. At times we find it brilliantly coloured and conspicuous. (See Fig. 12.)

The Sepals are the leaves of the calyx when it is divided to the base.

The Calyx is gamosepalous when the sepals are wholly or partly grown together.

The Corolla is the next inner and upper set of leaves. It is the alluring part of the flower, and attracts the bees and but- terflies to its whereabouts that its pollen maybe carried through their agency. (Fig. 12.)

The Petals are the leaves of the corolla when it is divided to the base.

The Corolla is said to be gamopetalous when the petals are wholly or partly grown together.

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

The Calyx and Corolla are spoken of as parted when they are divided nearly to the base. When they are divided about half way they are said to be cleft, or lobed. They are TOOTHED when the lobes are very small.

When the parts of the Calyx or Corolla are united, the terms used to express their different forms are :

Salver-Shaped : when the border is flat and spread out at right angles from the top of the tube. (Fig. 13.)

FIG. 14. FIG. 15. FIG. 16. FIG. 1 7.

Wheel-Shaped : when the border suggests the diverging spokes of a wheel and spreads out at once, having a very short tube. (Fig. 14.)

Bell-Shaped, or Campanulate : when the tube expands towards the summit and has no border, or only a short one. (Fig. 15.)

Funnel-Formed : when the tube is narrow below, and spreads gradually to a wide border. (Fig. 16,)

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FIG. 18. FIG. 19. FIG. 20, FIG. 21.

Tubular : when the tube is prolonged, and does not widen much towards the summit. (Fig. 17.)

Ligulate : when appearing strap-shaped, as in the dandelion and chicory. (Fig. 18.)

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

Labiate : when there is an apparently two-Hpped division of the parts. In this form of corolla usually two petals grow to- gether and make the upper lip ; the remaining three petals join together and form the lower lip. These divisions appear mostly as lobes, and it is not always noticed that the flowers are of five lobes instead of two. (Fig. 19.)

FIG. 24. FIG. 25. FIG. 26.

When the petals are not grown together but are wholly sepa- rate, the corolla is said to be polypetalous. Different forms are :

Rosaceous : when the petals are distinct and without claws, as in the rose.

Cruciferous : when there are four clawed petals in the form of a cross. (Fig. 20.)

Papilionaceous, or butterfly-shaped. (Fig. 21.) Such flowers are usually described in three parts : the banner, or standard, which is the large upper petal ; the wings, or the two side petals, and the two anterior petals that, commonly united in a shape something like the prow of a boat and enclos- ing the reproducing organs, are called the keel. (Fig. 22.)

A CHAPTER TO STUDY. 7

Regular Flowers are those that have the parts of each set, the sepals and petals, alike in size and form. (Fig. 23.) Irregu- lar Flowers are the reverse of regular. (Fig. 24.)

It is sometimes found that only one set of floral leaves is present. It is then regarded as the Calyx. Collectively the floral envelope, or the protecting organs, is spoken of as the Perianth ; but the word is mostly used in cases where the calyx and corolla run into each other so that it is difficult to distinguish them apart. The lily family have a perianth.

The Stamens, or Fertilizing Organs, of the plant are composed of two parts : the Filament, or stalk, which is use- ful to uphold the Anther ; and the Anther, a tiny two-ceiled box which contains the Pollen. The Pollen is the yellow fertilizing powder which is the essential product of the stamens. (Fig. 25.)

Exserted Stamens are those that protrude from the corolla.

Included Stamens are those that are within the corolla.

The Pistil, or Seed-Bearing Organ, is divided into three parts : the Ovary, the Style, and the Stigma. (Fig. 26.)

The Ovary is the lower expanded part of the pistil that contains the Ovules, or undeveloped seeds. (Fig. 26.)

The Style is the slender stalk that usually surmounts the ovary. (Fig. 26.)

The Stigma is the flat or variously formed body that ter- minates the style. (Fig. 26.) Unlike the other organs of the plant, it is not covered by a thin skin or epidermis. Its surface is therefore moist and rough so that it readily receives and holds the pollen when it is deposited upon its surface.

Each tiny pollen grain that alights on the stigma sends out a minute tube that pierces down through the style until it reaches an ovule below, which it quickens into life. This is known as the process of Fertilization. The ovules then de- velop into Seeds, and the ovary enlarges into the Fruit, or Seed Vessel.

Cross-Fertilization is when the pollen of one flower is

8

A CHAPTER TO STUDY

carried to the stigma of another by some extraneous agency, such as the wind or animal life.

Self-Fertilization is when the stigma receives the pollen from the stamens in the same flower-cup as itself. To prevent this catastrophe the plants are ever upon the alert, experience teaching them that the result is not good. Often either no seeds at all mature or their progeny is a weakling.

FIG. 30.

FIG. 31.

FIG. 32.

FIG. 29.

A Perfect Flower is one that has both stamens and pistil. The reverse is called an Imperfect Flower.

A Neutral Flower is one that has neither stamens nor pistils.

A CHAPTER TO STUDY. 9

Staminate Flowers are those that have stamens but are without pistils.

Pistillate Flowers are those that have pistils but no stamens.

The terms male and female that are sometimes employed in- stead of STAMINATE and PISTILLATE are used wrongly and should be avoided by even those that have no pretention to botanical knowledge. It is the product of these organs and not they themselves that should be so called if the terms are used at all ; but staminate and pistillate are the correct and accepted expressions.

Cleistogamous flowers are those small, inconspicuous blos- soms of the late season that usually grow near the ground and never open. They are, however, fruitful, being self-fertilized within themselves. Violets bear them abundantly.

Leaves may be looked upon as appendages of the stem. They are the digestive organs of the plant and assimilate the sap into material for sustaining its tissues.

The Blade is the usually broad, flat part of the leaf.

Stipules are the two small blade-like parts at the base of the petiole. They are often inconspicuous, or absent.

Bracts are the modified leaves of an inflorescence or those that are under a flower. Usually they are green and of different size and shape than the rest of the foliage ; sometimes, how- ever, they are highly coloured and petal-like.

The three principal ways in which leaves are arranged upon the stem are :

Alternate : that is when one leaf appears just above the other on another side of the stem. (Fig. 27.)

Opposite : when two appear at each joint, having the semi- circle of the stem between them. (Fig. 28.)

Whorled : when they grow at intervals in a circle around the stem. (Fig. 29.)

The Veining of the leaves is classed under two divisions : Netted- Veined and Parallel-Veined.

Netted-Veined leaves are those in which the veins branch

lO

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

off from the midrib and branch again into veinlets that run to- gether and form a network, or mesh. (Fig. 30.) Netted- veined leaves are said to be Feather-Veined when the sec- ondary veins all start from the sides of the midrib, running from the base to the apex of the leaf. (Fig. 31.) They are called Palmately-Veined when several veins of equal size start from the same point at the base of the leaf and spread out towards the margin.

Parallel-Veined leaves are those in which the main veins run side by side, without branching or running together. (Fig. 32.)

The veining of the leaves is always in complete harmony with their shape, so that much can be learned by noticing this feature carefully.

FIG. 33. FIG. 34. FIG. 35. FIG. 36.

Leaves vary greatly in general outline, and the following terms are used to designate some of their common forms :

Linear : the narrowest form of a leaf several times longer than broad : grass-like. (Fig. 32.)

Lanceolate : long and narrow, slightly broader at the base and tapering towards the apex. (Fig. 30.)

Oblanceolate is a reversed lanceolate.

Oblong" : when two or three times broader than long. (Fig. 31.)

Elliptical : oblong but tapering at both ends. (Fig. $:^,)

Oval : broadly elliptical. (Fig. 34.)

Ovate : when the outline is similar to the shape of an tgg, the broader end downward. (Fig. ^6.)

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

II

Obovate : the reverse of ovate.

Spatulate : like a spatula, rounded at the apex and tapering towards the base. (Fig. 35.)

Orbicular, nearly circular or rounded in outline. (Fig. 41.)

Cordate or Heart-Shaped : when the outline is ovate, the sides forming a notch at the base. (Fig. 37.)

FIG. 37. FIG. 38. FIG. 39. FIG. 40.

Obcordate : the reverse of cordate.

Reniform, or Kidney-Shaped : when the indentation is deeper and the leaf more rounded than heart-shaped. (Fig. $S.)

Auriculate : when the sides of the leaf are prolonged at the base into two ears or lobes, (Fig. 39.)

FIG. 41. FIG. 42. FIG. 43.

Sagittate, or Arrow-Shaped : when these lobes are acute and pointed backward. (Fig. 40.)

12

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

Peltate, or Shield-Shaped : when the leaf is orbicular, with the petiole attached to the middle. (Fig. 41.)

Entire Leaves are those in which the margins form an un- broken line. (Fig. 35.)

Undulate Leaves have margins that are wavy. (Fig. 33.)

Serrate Leaves have margins with short, sharp teeth that point forward. (Fig. 30.)

Crenate, or Scolloped : when the teeth are rounded. (Fig. 31.)

Incised : when the teeth are coarse and jagged and extend deeper into the leaf. (Fig. 34.)

FIG. 44. FIG. 4$. FIG. 46.

Lobed : when the incisions extend about half way to the midrib ; and in which case the leaf is spoken of as three lobed, five lobed, or according to the number of lobes formed. (Fig.

42.)

Cleft : when the incisions reach more than half way to the midrib. (Fig. 43.)

Divided : when the incisions extend to the midrib.

Compound Leaves have the blade split into separate parts, the little blades forming leaflets. When the leaflets are ar- ranged similarly to feather-veins they are said to be Pinnate. When arranged as the veins in a palmately-veined leaf they are Palmate. (Fig. 44.)

Abruptly Pinnate Leaves are those in which the main stalk is terminated by a pair of leaflets. {Fig. 45.)

A CHAPTER TO STUDY.

13

Odd-Pinnate : when an odd leaflet terminates the stalk. (Fig. 46.) Sometimes this end leaflet is changed into a tendril, which aids the plant in climbing.